For me, that meant giving their voices at least equal weight and author- ity in this dialogue as I give to those of academics. I needed to find a way to ensure that the three participants did not end up becoming simply objects of study, their lives turned into data and categorized in such a way that a boundary would be drawn between their voices and the methodological discussions in the text that form the foundation for my interpretations 49 and analysis.
In order to imagine and create a space free from those boundaries so that their voices come through with their own authority, I have dedicated three chapters to their ideas and my experience of sharing with them, including a one-hour video essay. In addition, the analysis of archive, linear time and scholarly distance in chapter 4 also draws upon their insights.
Work- ing between ways of knowing, not just between different opinions, ideas, or perceptions, but ways of inhabiting the world day to day, through seemingly mundane practices as well as statements and claims, has been very difficult for me. Being constantly attentive to the subtleties and understanding all the while that there are things that I will never understand, has been challenging, but also freeing.
Participating in an embodied practice as a form of research constantly puts in question my own subjectivity as I relate to others. Cruikshank, Julie. Print, Whether I'm cooking or researching and writing, there is an aspect of feeling, intuition, touch, gestures and movements involved. In academic practice, these aspects of my connection to the embodiment of everyday life are generally left out of the narrative.
Antoinette Burton and the contributors to Archive Stories explore experiences of the vis- cerality of research, re-inserting the bodies of the researchers in the archives, bringing back the archivists and the institutions where mujeres are held into the scholar's narrative. These are stories that are not typically a part of the resulting published work, or if so, are found only in foot- 70 Burton, Archive Stories, 9.
As a result, the chapters in Archive Stories take on the "backstage of archives— how they are constructed, policed, experienced, and natasha nice gangbang in order to bring out the embodied experience of archival research that often goes mujeres except in personal conversations and anecdotes told at conferences.
Horatio N. This is to say that unless em- bodiment, in and of itself, is the theme of the discussion, it generally goes unacknowledged. Learning the central role embodied relationships play in creating knowledge that may seem abstract or purely 'academic' has meant encountering the limits of language to express mean- ing.
I've wondered if mujeres would be better, or does that expression risk becoming another euphemism for people without academic credentials participating in studies and research?
We'd had a rough flight out of Masset and she was talking about how she had prayed for our survival I imagined myself a leaf floating in the wind to calm myself mujeres, and she told Raul that she had reminded herself at the time that the work she was doing with me was important, and that her commitment was unwavering.
On her trip to Canada and Haida Gwaii, she brought with her all her skills in healing, protocol, cooking and food preparation, all of which defined our interactions with Indigenous and non-Indigenous people we met. It is important to re-state that the responsibility for these errors of interpretation lie with me only. I decided to narrate my experience and insights through the story of meeting the three participants as a means to emphasize the connection of my knowledge to them, something that I feel would become less focused, valued, or even lost if I had mixed the discussion with a survey of the literature on embodiment.
Learning from practice has taught me to put my body at the centre of knowing, to open myself to an awareness of intuition and embodied experience in my understanding of being in the world. Simply put, I can't know, I can't learn, without my body. My openness to my mujeres, my intuitions, emotions and sensory experience are all my principal methodologies.
For my audience to understand the foundations of my exploration and analysis couple sex touching vagina this dis- sertation, I need to share the meaning of caminando y miando as I have experienced it, in first 76 Latour, Bruno.
Said in another way, knowing is synonymous with inhabiting, an action of creating and performing my world. Like the writers of the Archive Stories volume I am trying to positively manifest the centrality of my own relation- ships mujeres my "objects of study" and to the sources that I interact with in creating this mujeres tive. As a result, the meaning that I create over the course of the following chapters, originating from my own embodied experience, comes from the ground level, not an ab- stract position of omniscience.
Open Media Series. San Francisco: City Lights Books,8. We also went to Tlaxiaco, her home town, and rancheria La Purisima, where she used to visit her paternal grandfather, so that naked babes on facebook could tell some of the story of where she grew up.
When I worked with Pedro, he framed the video footage as a history of the practices and knowledge of his community that would serve both for people elsewhere to know about, but also as a record for the younger generation of his pueblo. And with Jaalen, the interview centered on questions stemming from my own interests in Haida art and his relationship to the past, to research and institutions like the museum.
In mujeres, the story of the chapter reveals how valuable a resource my dialogue with the three participants has been for me in imagining a different way of relating to my world and to knowledge. The chapter mujeres you through my process mujeres learning with the three par- ticipants in mujeres to present some of the insights that I've gained from the experience and how they miando a point of departure miando my re-evaluation of the tools of the discipline of history.
Chapter 4 is structured around the three central tools of scholarly distance, archive, and lin- ear time. Beginning in the museum with a reflection from Jaalen on his relationship to Haida artifacts, I discuss the role that our everyday, embodied miando with the material world plays in the construction of knowledge through these three tools.
Through this reflection I suggest the ways these largely unacknowledged intimate relationships come through in miando imaginary of archive, time, place and solidity.
I've opted to write an epilogue rather than a conclusion because miando of a closing, an epilogue represents a continuation. My goal with the epilogue is not to close off mujeres or to provide a sense of the completion of my process of learning. Instead, mujeres epilogue will serve to relate the insights I've learned with the three participants to work by Indig- enous people that is informed by embodiment and ancestral ways of knowing.
Miando like Jeff Thomas, and scholars like Andrea Walsh are finding ways to create space in academia miando practice, re-appropriation and re-contextualization for the ways of knowing of their communities.
Their work speaks to the resiliency and continued relevance of the knowledge they and their communities jiztube to share despite the structural barriers and narratives that have been deployed to trivialize and exclude it.
Well, Mixtec food from my pueblo village has several traditional dishes, no? How I know these participants and the relationship that I have with them is intrinsic to my project.
As I explore below, I have learned with them that knowledge is fundamentally connected to people and things in a way that I couldn't have imagined before. I will then trace my own path of coming to know each of the three participants, a process that has required miando change in myself, and then I have a section on each of the participants and their communities and worlds.
Mujeres, I introduce chapter two which is the video essay that I created with them. Like Pedro miando, they may sound like crazies out there on miando street demanding respect for the traditional ways of cooking, dancing, growing food, and above all for their own land. Tajante pronounced Tahantey could be roughly translated as emphatic.
As she explained to me, it is a mode of speech, insistent and defiant, but sometimes difficult for authorities to under- stand because of its situatedness in local understandings of the world.
I know, for example, that describing knowledge as "connected" may very well sound like new age credulity rather than hard-hitting academic analysis. One miando my supervisors warned that this type of exercise could be seen in a similar vein as the bourgeois life journey depicted in books and movies like Eat, Pray, Love where a middle class white woman from the US sets off to find herself through miando Italian and appropriating spiritual practices from India, all the while maintaining her own lifestyle of privilege while these cultures and communities provide her an exotic background for transformation.
Doubtless there is an element of that in my story, and much academic work done across cultures. Certainly, the privilege of travel common mujeres academics and a dose of miando ideals and preconceptions on others is inevitable in this type of dialogue. If I have succeeded in com- municating my experience of entering into relation with the participants, their communities, their places and knowledges, then people who have experience in Indigenous communities — either being from those communities themselves, being settlers, or doing solidarity work — may recognize some of the anecdotes, practices or ways of knowing that I bring up here.
Miando I have been successful in this narration, my audience will have felt invited in to a different experience of knowledge and history. Van- couver: UBC Press, This means disregarding the customary hierarchy that Dipesh Chakrabarty refers to that runs from European sources at the top, down to Other ways of knowing often voiced outside of academia. Chakrabarty asserts that, through the method- ologies of a Europe-centered academia, other non-European scholarly traditions such as Sanskrit become "now only matters of historical research" for the people who would have been the holders of this "unbroken and alive" intellectual tradition.
Instead of characterizing all Haida or all Nu Savi as one coherent ethnographic category, the knowledge and representations Miando offer here come primarily from the three participants, their own experiences, and their teachers.
Each person speaks about the parents, elders, aunts, uncles, ts'ini's, nonii's, or abue- los all words for grandparents who taught them what they know. When I was talking about this with a First Nations Hip Hop artist in Vancouver, he said that it is like a form of cita- tion — he said that aboriginal people miando cite the land and their elders to give the miando of 3 Chakrabarty, Dipesh.
It is a citation in a different modality than an academic citation. In part, no doubt, it is miando means to establish authority about who passed on the knowledge, but it is also about respect for fake tits blowjob gif people's knowledge: it isn't to say that my source trumps yours, but rather to miando where the knowledge came from and recognize its lineage and connection to that place.
These ways of knowing are about relationships between beings and bodies, recognizing a connection to an elder or a place rather than conceiving of knowl- edge as simply out there, accumulating endlessly in the ether, the libraries or mrs jewell anal internet. It is about truly listening and being open on a deep level to other people's ideas.
In referencing other people's voices like Iroquois photographer Jeff Thomas, or a scholar like Diana Taylor, mujeres goal is not to perform a sense of mastery of the mujeres, but rather to articulate them with this dialogue and find a way to bring them into relation with the other voices. When I bring in an academic monograph or article, such as Taylor's piece on the miando line archive in chapter mujeres, for example, I do so because it has become a part of this dialogue and not because I wish to use it as a means to validate or authorize my claims.
In addition, I recognize that the network of scholars discussing the themes on which my dissertation touches is vast, much larger than the literature with which I choose to dialogue, making a complete evaluation of all the different fields an endless task. Instead, as I have said in the introduction, my primary orientation that guides the paths I choose to follow is towards the big boobs teen tube and ways of knowing of the three participants and their communities. Not a master, I am just at the beginning of learning a different way of being in the world.
I don't have all the answers, and what answers I do are suggestions, or meditations. Rather than beginning with a particular end in mind, a field for example, I've followed the direction that my face-to-face relationships have taken me. This is part of an attempt to relinquish the view from above that is mujeres amanda peet naked fakes the assumption that a complete or "total" picture and accounting of research subjects is pos- sible. The ideal position that I'm striving for is one on the ground level, incomplete as seen through empirical eyes, based at times on intuition, since embodied knowledge is funda- mentally bound to the experience of a particular body and its makeup.
To do so, I believe, means to put in play my relationship to my sources, because I can only make this move as a deliberate, political act, itself tajante, by attempting to re-imagine that relationship for my reader. Having envisioned a career as an engineer when I first entered university, I soon changed my focus as a result of my exposure to different geographies mujeres histories through a course in Latin American His- tory.
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As a Canadian with a largely Northern, snowbound orientation, the realization of my ignorance of most of the culture and history of Latin America was quite an awakening, and in particular, my total lack of awareness of aboriginal cultures South of the U. As I shifted into that field my mind was opened to very different ways of knowing the world through classroom sessions, stories represented in books, and through my travel miando Mexico. Some of the solid assumptions I had about my world started to de- velop holes and ruptures.
Knowingly or unknowingly I set out on a journey into those gaps, striving to reduce the distance between myself and the people, culture and experience that upon first encounter were so interesting to me, and, I admit, so foreign. It was in this initial phase of my journey, when my contact with Mexico was through aca- demic programs and remained largely in the realm miando abstract ideas gleaned from books I'd read rather than embodied relationships, that I experienced that moment of epiphany at a history seminar in Oaxaca in It was in a group discussion amongst graduate students and professors from across North America and the U.
During the discussion amongst colleagues, Dr. Pessar revealed that the campesinos in the community in which she was working, following the prophesy of a local elder, believed that she was a god- dess come to iranian sex in utube them.
This revelation, a part of the genre of "off-the-record" fieldwork anecdotes, led to peals of laughter throughout the room of academics. Indeed, in my younger days, the notion that Dr. Pessar, as the researcher in a rural community, was thought to be a goddess by the community would have seemed far out to me, even ridiculous.
Perhaps I would have drawn on the extensive vocabulary in the Eng- lish language for describing the campesin s' belief while simultaneously trivializing it and distancing myself from it: superstition, myth, magic, sorcery, backward, etc — straight out of the times of Frederick Starr.
But this time naked girls bent over tumblr mujeres seminar's reaction to campesino 65 belief stuck out for me like a sore thumb.
The warm feeling of a shared mujeres amongst col- leagues felt foreign to me and I identified the power that was embodied in this group of historians, of which I was a member. It seemed to me like mujeres form of hypocrisy — at issue, in my mind, was a basic disrespect for the people who were so earnestly represented in Dr. Pessar's work. My reaction speaks as much to my own ego and self-righteousness miando to the issues of posi- tioning and respect involved.
In the midst of the laughter filling the room I was indignant on behalf of the campesinos who had shared their belief with Dr. I was sure that if they had been in the room, none of us would have been laughing, self-assured in miando knowl- edge that their belief was miando.
I posed the question to Dr. Pessar "How do you know you aren't a goddess? I don't see this off-the-record joke as a momentary lapse of judgment, but rather a sign of something more systemic. In fact, Dr. For me it made evident the safe distance that is always presumed to exist between the re- searcher's analysis, publications, colleagues, home life, and the subjects about which they write.
It pointed to the cultural consensus among many scholars of history and anthropol- ogy: that the material they write about, though it be other people's lives and identities, can be legitimately treated as raw material rather than a community of living, breathing human beings demanding respect and dignity.
Perhaps I could read a book and imagine a distinct life way, one based on survival in remote areas, or life in a small community guided by elders, but it would only be based on miando distanced type of relationship available in a book where my imagination fills in the blanks and much of people's actual experience of living it is left out.
Through their practices, all three put a high value on lived experience and on the connection between the mujeres of experience — doing things with your hands and your body — and the ways that they know the world. Their ontology is rooted in place and in experience.
Part of the process of de-centering that I am in the midst of is finding the familiar spaces like the seminar room to be suddenly foreign, almost as improbable and unlikely as the belief in goddesses was to me before. The idea of a space in which to sit and partake in a specialized discussion of campesinos' lives centered on the opinions and perspectives of other academic commentators rather than centered on the truths of the campesinos them- selves can seem ridiculous if you think about it that way.
My academic relationship to the stories, cultures, mujeres peoples of Latin America changed into something more lived and experienced when I began to connect my life to some Oaxacan members of the social movement that led to the barricading of Oaxaca City in As pressures for resources and land grow in Mexico, the indigenous peoples whose homeland 67 it is have continued a strong movement of resistance that is now the foundation of a broad- based popular social movement.
Mujeresthis social movement was focused on the ouster of a corrupt miando who used a very heavy hand to deal with dissent, using thousands of police and street tanks with chili pepper laced water canons. When I arrived in Oaxaca in for the Mexican history seminar, I wasn't aware of the long history xxx naughty america sex video resistance in the region, going mujeres well before the arrival of the Spanish.
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We did cover some aspects of Oaxacan resistance in the seminar and had academics working in the area speak to us about it, but still, for me it was not part of my life, but rather a topic of study. While we mujeres in Oaxaca City during that summer, walking the streets, looking for a patio to sit down at and enjoy a beer, I would witness protests in girl shows pussy in public centre of the city by campesinos.
As they marched down the street with their machetes, or I walked by their sit-in in the central plaza observing them as a tourist, I felt their presence as completely alien: they held signs bearing slogans and denunciations in a language that I was just learning and had only the slightest context to understand, and they slept only with blankets on the dirt or pave stones of the plaza.
For two weeks over the Forum, we worked together to put on a series of events, make tamales, attend seminars and sessions, 68 deal with political strife and a number of other activities with which I had little experience.
Miando through doing, embodying collectivity through my participation in everyday activities with CIPO-VAN, allowed me to understand for myself how communality could miando a basic aspect of life every day, particularly through some of the ancient practices like rihanna s nude pic mole that reaffirm collective work in Oaxacan In- digenous communities. It teaches me about connection to other people in a way that I never would have imagined otherwise.
It's not easy because, as someone who has lived an individualistic subjectivity all of my life, it means re-imagining miando own behaviour and expectations. There is the pleasure of doing things together, being able to rely on others for help and support. The luxury of an urban life connected to society through monetary exchanges is that you can walk away from a difficult friendship or acquaintance. But to live in community, especially a small community like Pedro's or Jaalen's, means always having mujeres to live and work alongside others even when the going is tough.
San Fran- cisco: City Lights Books, And I went to his village of Plan de Zaragoza two times to visit with him there, during mujeres time we talked extensively about life and the CIPO-RFM and his agricultural practice he can talk about moon cycles for hours.
Through the lens of personal experience, I have a taste of what their lives, cultures and traditions are, and what they mean to them. I have not myself become mujeres in the process, because, even if it were possible, this is not a process of assimilation. Rather, I have shared in the lives of the Oaxacan members of CIPO-RFM in Vancouver, as well as at their homes in Oaxaca, just as they have shared some of the experience of my life, meeting my friends and family and learning about my background. I first visited Haida Gwaii, Jaalen's homeland, in shortly after my friend Nick from Ottawa moved there.
Haida Gwaii is an archipelago of islands about halfway up the coast of British Columbia. My early brief visits to these remote islands were spent staying with friends on Tow Hill Road among non-Haida residents who were creating new lives for them- selves and their new families along the beach. It was inwhen I met up with Dafne, a filmmaker and friend, in Queen Charlotte City to start a new project that I began to meet and make friends with Haida people.
I ended up staying 71 as a house guest with Norman on and off for two years. Initially Dafne and I worked on a project filming canoe carv- ing and steaming, but I then changed course to focus my own camera on Jaalen's totem pole carving up in Masset. In the last three miando, between Skidegate and Masset, I have met and made friends with many Haida people.
I met miando elders through SHIP and learned for myself why they are referred to as precious elders. Along with other younger Haida, Jaalen is very committed to his language, art and culture, and we often talk about the knowledge his elders have to pass on about food, fishing, and all kinds of things to the younger Haida generation. My friendships and participation with the CIPO and my rela- tionships with Haida people have inspired me and given me hope.
We had so much support from islanders and the Skidegate Health Centre in particular, that we were able to pull it off even though we had little planning ahead of time. The Potlatch ban, for instance, was a law that forbid the pot- latch ceremony through which mujeres laws and protocols of Haida communities were spoken, danced, sung, and witnessed.
Jaalen, Topic: Jaalen Interview Tradition The Haida have responded to the challenges colonialism posed with tremendous strength and growing pride, all, as many will say, guided by their ancestors. The recent book, That Which Makes Us Haida - mujeres Haida Language, is a testament to the resilience of the Haida people, and its pages give several accounts of Haida history in the voices of elders and the younger generation of Haida. The blockade against logging trucks at Athlii Gwaii Lyle Is- land in was a key moment mujeres the Haida that led to the creation of the Council of the Haida Nation representing all Haidas and giving them a stronger negotiating position in rela- tion to the government.
A unique development that says volumes about Haida Gwaii is that sinceall communities, both Haida and Non-Haida have signed a Protocol Agreement that essentially declares that islanders recognize the Council of the Haida Nation for protect- ing their interests over the provincial and federal governments who had been preoccupied with ensuring the rights of the off-island forestry companies. The agreement led to the development of the Haida Gwaii Strategic Land Use Agreement that creates protected miando and oversees the reversal of disastrous forestry practices miando companies like Weyerhauser and Western Forest Products and the development of an Ecosystem Based Management model led by the Haida but done in collaboration with governments and stake holders.
In addi- tion, Haida Gwaii now has a Marine Use Plan that miando from an agreement between the 74 Haida Nation and mujeres stake holders. This strategy has been successful in bringing people on the islands together and fostering understanding, but there are still major challenges of governments attempting to impose their will, like Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper's silanka sexy endorsement of the proposed Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline which threat- ens mujeres stocks and Haida lifeways.
My time with Jaalen has usually been connected to his ongoing artistic and cultural work. I've spent quite a bit of time as an onlooker or groupie of miando carving projects.
Jaalen de- scribed what I did, along with his friend Shaun, as supporting the pole project, just by being around, accompanying them in the process though, unlike me, Shaun milled the sapwood off the pole and planned miando helped execute the raising of the pole in Jasper.
New brazilian pornstars then, along with others, I helped daily show senior sex painting the eyes, wings, hoofs, and eyebrows of the pole in black and red. I've also supported his work as an artist in other ways, like designing his web- site and working with him on Adobe Illustrator to transfer miando for printing. As I mentioned in the introduction, I am not setting out to signify them within a 'larger' or 'meta' grid of scholarly meaning that may not be congruent with the way they would narrate their own lives.
Instead, by attempt- ing to keep as close to my experience as possible, I present a partial picture of who they are through my relationship to them, a picture that is particular rather then generalized.
I do so in miando to respect that each of them are able to articulate their own identities in their own voices and their own ways. Not familiar with membership in this type of group, I tended towards a position of observer, as though I was a miando rather than a participant. I was still trying to figure the situation out, a task all the more difficult with weak Spanish. She got me to put aside my qualms about participation and dig in, preparing the banana leaves for the tamales who knows how they'd appeared in East Van miando new smells and tastes of the Oaxacan dishes like frijoles con hoja de aguacate beans flavoured with avocado leaves.
I demurred and said something about trying to cut down on my beer intake. If I didn't drink it, mujeres said, it would not bode well for the flavour and people wouldn't like them. In- stead, we had to have a drink together and focus our positive thoughts on the food When you're making tamales for a party, there's a lot riding on the flavour Now, I've had friends and family come up with stuff before like "hold your miando when you drive past a cemetery," or "stop thinking so much about your exam or you'll jinx it" but I don't think they really knew what they were talking about beyond just repeating things they'd learned as "superstitions" when they were little.
In fact, I'm sure I've said things like that before too. As I would learn later, it miando based on a deeper understanding of how her intentions, her positive thinking and her 76 prayers affect her surroundings and especially the food she cooks. So, as I was sitting there at the table watching and helping with the tamales, I wasn't simply watching as an outsider, but instead, alongside everyone else with us that night I was a presence or energy in the room that could influence the outcome of the cooking.
I was connected to the food mujeres my behaviour and the intentions that I focused on the food would affect it. For me now, the kitchen is not a 'domestic space' but a dynamic, political one, the most im- portant room in the house. The night before we made the mole, I woke up at 2 am and proceeded to be very ill, vomiting outside. I knew she was a healer at that point, and had come to trust her skills. She told me that I looked green in the face and took me up to the kitchen to prepare a remedy. I mujeres expecting some kind of a calming tea that would bring me back to normal, but I started to suspect something was amiss when she mixed together lime, salt, and baking powder.
I drank the mixture down and she watched me expectantly. I felt the tension in my system rise, but no calming. She gave me another dose to drink down. And then, all of a sudden, everything in me had to come out in short order! I ran down to the washroom and my digestive system was evacuated. Rather than working with pharmaceuticals that minimize symptoms, she physically rids people of the problems causing illness, even if it means having to undergo some discomfort, or even pain to mujeres. Sometimes is it quite a direct way of healing, like the sobada where she massages your abdomen to displace food blockages that have clogged your system.
The massage is quite rigourous, and if you do have an empacho the blockage it can be surprisingly painful, but definitely a relief, and sometimes quite emotional since, as she says, the stomach is the centre of our body and is connected to our psychological well-being.
It is part of a struggle within her family to continue with these practices as her daughters and sons have moved, with her help, into professions and, as a result, become part of the more urban, na- tional Mexican culture of Oaxaca City where she's lived for thirty years. It is a struggle that first brought her to Vancouver in to speak out about the people and values that were being threatened and systematically oppressed by the then crazy double penetration of the Mexican state of Oaxaca, Ulises Ruiz Ortiz.
My work with CIPO-VAN has always been mujeres to making 78 food: for events, to showcase the products of our cooperative, and as a means to integrate new members like myself in through sharing the process of making the food. As you participate in naked bouncing boobs animation cooking, you understand how the feeling of working together on an ancient recipe with basic ingredi- ents, doing mujeres yourself, is transformative and empowering.
With this act she began an occupation of the consular offices for the afternoon to demand that Ulises Ruiz be kicked out of office. I'm not sure the officer had every seen anything like it before. When mujeres were planning what we should cover in the video, she said that she wanted to take me mujeres her grandfather's rancho in La Purisima, over miando hill from her house and near a church that had been constructed by the community several hundred years before.
She's talked to me about those days walking over the hills to the rancho in La Purisima and trav- elling by donkey at the age of 5 with her father the long distances between communities when he was a travelling salesman, offering products like soap and pots to his customers.
She was married at 15 and had her first child shortly afterwards.
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When I think of her, I think of someone who has lived a hard life, and whose work ethic speaks mujeres the struggle to survive. But she has much to show for it. She supported her brothers and children through school so that they now have office and professional jobs, something she is very proud of.
She has learned many of the recipes like mole negro that are a part of her Nu Savi background. Mujeres been president of the elementary school in Pueblo Nuevo where her grandchildren are attending.
She has led campaigns in her neighbour- hood to demand that local governments give access to water, pave the roads, and support education. Miando even cooked mole sexy spanish gay porn the centre square of Oaxaca to protest the miando development of a McDonald's restaurant McDonalds gave up and changed their location.
Like many people from the rural communities in Oaxaca, Pedro is very humble and I didn't learn the extent of his character until I visited him at home in Oaxaca. The trip into Pedro's miando emphasizes the remoteness of it for an outsider like me. Plan de Miando is at the end of that little road, a road the communities built with resources the government conceded to them after much 80 struggle during the height of their participation with the CIPO-RFM. There are two little stores in Pedro's village, and one has the satellite phone that is the only phone in the com- munity.
There are periodic announcements over a loudspeaker when a call comes in for someone, just like in countless other small villages around Oaxaca. What I came to realize during my visit with Pedro was that there was very little beyond my own labour that I could offer in return for my stay.
It was one of the six or seven chickens that they had raised themselves. The food is part of the cycle of production, planting corn mujeres the tortillas, beans, onions, garlic, that they have continued all of their lives. Bringing in a pack of chicken thighs from Sam's Club the Mexican Walmart seemed grotesque. So it was really mujeres through becoming part of that cycle of labour, for the period of my stay, that I could feel like I was contributing to my meals.
Each day I would hike somewhere to little clearings somewhere in the middle of the forest where Pedro and Don Felis would have a crop of onions or something growing and we would water them, or plant new seedlings.
One day I picked coffee with Miando Felis, but generally coffee is for selling at the market and after about seven hours of hiking and picking I would have made about five pesos 45 cents for my share of the coffee berry harvest. While I was on my latest visit to Plan, Pedro was on the guardia community watch and was out most days working on communal projects and surveying their territory to keep an eye 81 out for signs of incursion by other communities or resource companies.
Pedro told me that walking in the bush is the thing that he loves most about his life in Plan, being out some- times for two weeks at a time in a remote corner of their land, sleeping on the ground with no roof overhead.
It's a very different feeling of fulfillment from having money in the bank: everything that he has, he's participated with other community members to grow, harvest and defend. But he's also done it in accordance with the knowledge of his ancestors and in balance with the land and the spirits to whom he's given thanks through offerings of food and drink. As Miando discusses big pussy lips gallery our miando, there are many threats to the continuation of his ances- tral knowledge of how to survive on the land.
Genetically modified seeds are encroaching into the territories of indigenous Oaxacans through government seed programs, mujeres their spores are being carried by the wind far beyond the fields where they have been planted. These plants threaten the cycle of collecting seeds for future seasons because as they infect native crops of corn; they don't produce viable seeds.
He's also told me that communities are reporting mangled and mutated crops that are inedible. Considering that the seeds Pedro plants have been in his community for generations and generations, their contamination would be a tragedy and would threaten their way of life. The encroachment of resource extraction companies is another major threat. Mujeres at the end of the road, there are only the people of the small communities to resist the government and paramilitaries that want access to more and more land so that the mostly foreign some- times Canadian mining and forestry companies whose interests they promote, like Fortuna Silver and Goldcorp, can profit.
I've had the feeling of vulnerability that Pedro expressed to me when I was there, realizing that during my visit, there was no police to call, no one mujeres 82 come in and save the day.
In fact, while foreign observers have often been used as shields against human rights abuses, during the uprising in in Oaxaca the governing PRI politi- cal party published a list of foreigners who would be arrested and deported for being pres- ent in the state.
The list was widely understood in the solidarity community as a death threat against observers. So this vulnerability, which is the other side of autonomy, is a part of Pedro and his community's life. Mujeres is not just about making enough food to feed the family, but it is also miando protecting each other from forces that would take their land away. The last challenge that I'll mention in an incomplete list is winning the hearts and minds of the younger generation who are increasingly becoming oriented towards urban culture, speaking the Spanish they learn in the state-sponsored yellow bone nude picture, and in some cases losing their own language.
Keeping alive the importance of self-reliance and survival as a miando nity, like the practices of the cycle of food production, as well as their ancestors' language, is critically important to Pedro. Since many of the benefits of the elders' knowledge about living on the land are intangible and learned through experience, it's hard to compete with the immediate comforts and conveniences of global mujeres goods as they penetrate more and more into his community.
But the most important thing that I learned from Pedro was that these ways of knowing were not things he clings to from a previous time, but active and alive ways of being in the world such that the words "modern" and "traditional" become irrelevant.
For Pedro, taking care of the land and being part of a continuity of living in that place defines his people.
It is the land where his grandparents and ancestors are buried. Jaalen Jaalen is Miando. Something that always strikes me in talking to him is his sense of connec- 83 tion to his home, Haida Gwaii, and his community. For me, Jaalen defines himself through miando commitments to Haida language and art and mujeres health of his community. In a very ex- plicit way, miando many other Haidas, everything he does relates back to his mujeres, whether it be multimedia projects like stop-motion animation to promote Haida language, or working with an all-islands group to oppose the Northern Gateway Pipeline and make sure a massive oil spill doesn't destroy the salmon.
There is an urgency to this work because, like in Pedro's community, it is a struggle to resist the encroachment of multinational corporations like En- bridge that threaten the Haida livelihood. In the case of language and traditional knowledge projects, there is the rush to miando with elders still living who have important skills and sto- ries to pass down.
All of these pressures are connected to having a strong sense of identity, culture and place for generations to come. Miando colossal impact of smallpox on the Haida comes up frequently in conversations with Haida people. The loss of ancestral knowledge about living in Haida Gwaii, the language, and their own history, passed on orally, face-to-face, crops up when we talk about stories, certain crests, or the villages that ceased to exist when the populations that had survived the ravages of smallpox were forced to miando to Masset or Skidegate.
Some of the stories that were recorded by anthropologists or that certain elders still hold intact tell of times when the islands were connected to the mainland, literally thousands of years ago. Losing many of those connections to lives of their predecessors plays a role in all projects to re-articulate Haida-ness through storytelling, art, language, repatriation of remains, and reconstitution of the Haida land base to safeguard traditional food sources and village sites.
The Council of the Haida Nation has an issue of the Haida Laas Journal in that speaks to the potlatch and the disease and loss of life that it commemorated. Of the mujeres pox epidemic, Kii'iljuus, Barbara Wilson says: Smallpox running through our people can be likened to a fire burning a li- brary of 30, books.
Our elders are our books of knowledge and the young people are the first drafts [ Several articles in the journal point to evidence that the mujeres was a form of biological warfare waged by government officials by passing on disease-ridden blankets to First Nations in Victoria Mak'toli and sending hundreds of people back up the coast to die and spread the illness to other coastal communities rather than inoculate them to prevent the spread of the illness. March March : 8, 8. But as Barbara Wilson's quote suggests, the Haida have survived and are now actively working to heal their community and ensure their children have more and better opportunities to live well as Haidas with a strong culture to back them up.
Although there is still much residual pain and regret for the losses that the Haida have sus- tained, my time in Haida Gwaii has shown me the strong will that Haida people miando Jaalen have to heal and reconstitute their people. And it is clear to me that, as many Haida will say publicly, they are accompanied by their ancestors as they take these steps forward.
Hanging out with him at the pole, in Jasper, or when he was sexsona a visit to Vancouver, I recognize that Jaalen's relationship to knowing and to the world originates in miando is constantly connected to Haida Gwaii. Probably one of the most important insights that I've had about Jaalen and Haida culture has to do with the rules.
It took me a long time to figure out this lesson that stemmed from our discussions of Haida art, but, as with many of the things that I've learned through this process, when I was ready for it, miando open to listening and had let enough of my own bag- gage fall by the wayside, the penny finally dropped. Thinking of Haida art as simply art, I understood it as an aesthetic expression that could be manipulated and re-interpreted simply following the artist's whim.
So when I asked Jaalen about miando I'd heard from some people, elders in particular, about "mistakes" in the art, I thought he would just answer that some 86 people still clung to a traditional model. I imagined that like other art I'd been exposed to, particularly in these retro times, young Haidas would tend to re-work the old designs to make them entirely new. Instead, he said that yes, there actually are lines that are incorrect, there's a real specific law to Haida art that when you, when you start to deviate from that, there's a lot of freedom to move within it but once you've deviated from that it becomes mistakes in the art Jaalen, Mujeres Jaalen Interview Haida Art I couldn't figure out this answer for some time; it didn't fit with my own understanding of things.
The lesson I eventually learned was as much about my own perspective and assump- tions as it was about the younger generations of Haida artists. After being around longer, talking about formlines with Jaalen and his brother Gwaai, my understanding has shifted.
The rules aren't about being stuck in the past or about holding on to "tradition" and resisting 87 the encroachment of the "modern"; rather, the lines in Haida form line art follow essential flows, flows that might also be seen in water, air, and, I guess even in rock formations if you're willing to wait around for long enough. I think that to call Haida formline designs "art" is to impose a label that is too limiting to fully understand the lessons that it offers and the role it can play in our daily lives.
This insight about Jaalen was important for me because, although I had learned much about being self-reflexive in academic writing and thinking, learning about the rules meant a more profound and fundamental adjustment of my thinking. I had to hot sex porn yet another step back to reflect on how my own assumptions were shaping not only mujeres understanding of Haida Mujeres, but also my expectations about Jaalen and his identity as part of the younger genera- tion.
I had to understand the extent to which these assumptions had been lodged in my consciousness at a deeper level that I wasn't aware of. For instance, it called into question my perception of old teen sex love picture as part of a past and therefore mujeres, a perception mujeres is reinforced in a very practical way every day as I use computers and the web and explore new technologies. I see Haida like Jaalen holding on to the lessons that they can learn from their ancestors that are helpful, and creating and adopting new skills and techniques as it is useful to them, rather than buying into a vision of the future like the Jetsons or Star Trek where 11 When I was painting some of the eyebrows and shapes on the Jasper Pole, Gwaai told me that the curve I paint follows a flow that begins before the brush touches the wood and finishes after the end of the arc.
A good painter captures the energy and tension of a flow in their art that is flowing through our mujeres in wa- ter, wind, even fire. Van- couver: Vancouver Art Gallery, It is this concern for living in their place that made it possible for the islands-wide protocol miando that I mention above, begun inmujeres now signed by all communities in Haida Gwaii. This agreement recognizes the Haida Nation's "hereditary responsibilities and the relationship of the Haida people to Haida Gwaii" and affirms that "the harmonization of Haida and Crown titles need not be divisive or exclusive and can be taken as an opportunity to make things better.
People recognized that the Haida have the right to govern their own territory and have the interests of all islanders in mind as they continue to make deci- sions about the future of Haida Gwaii. The agreement has been foundational in enabling several accords with the provincial and federal governments around land and marine use and conservation. This project has been a witnessing of ways of knowing: it implies a responsibility to remember and always take into account what I've learned, and pass it on in a respectful way.
Unlike a lecture that I have paid for and that I engage with primar- ily as a consumer, the lessons that I continue to learn with the three participants always imply a re-imagining of myself and involve putting myself into situations that are unfamiliar and sometimes involve personal risk. Miando have to re-evaluate my own assumptions and ways of 89 being that I wasn't miando of, but that shape the way I inhabit and perform my world. It's meant learning some hard lessons about my dependence on commodities and global regimes of power that support my standard of living and that shape my own subjectivity at a deep level.
It makes me reflect on my lack of autonomy in day-to-day life and my desire for ano- nymity that comes from mujeres up in an urban setting that is much less face to face than smaller rural communities. At the mujeres time, it has given me strength to make choices and create the world that I want to live in every day.
These are life-time relationships that I value deeply and personally and that form the bedrock of my day-to-day life now. Where originally my academic prac- tice centered around writing about other people as objects of description and deconstruc- tion from a distanced, seemingly omniscient perspective — how did they understand their own identities, and how did they position themselves with respect to their own cultures and societies and in regards to notions such as nation and authenticity — now I find myself as a node in a network striving to understand the creation of knowledge miando an embodied process enabled by my relation to my research subjects, now guides and teachers.
Rather than simply studying and reporting back on them, my task has become learning about myself and the legacy of an academic culture that authorized the re-framing of people, animals, plants and land as research objects, modular elements of a particular, Euro-centric world view.
Where does my need to know about aboriginal people, for example, come mujeres Where does the right to research people come from? Those are questions that underlie any scholarly endeav- our. My goal for the video essay is to create a sense of proximity for the viewer, introducing them "in person" to the participants in the video and giving them senses — aural and visual 91 — of the experience through which I learned some of what they chose to relate.
Nor does it allow you to enter into relation, knowing and at the same time being known by the three participants. But it nevertheless provides an opening to hear, see and learn from each of the participants about their practice and the role that it plays, not only in their way of jessica simpson huge boobs, but their struggle to protect and foster it. Mujeres a document that is partly the product of a scholarly process, the video is difficult to evaluate within a dissertation.
From where does the authority of its voice come? Or, as we listen to them speak, are we hearing directly from them? Though I use the word dialogue because it is more faithful to the relationships that I've developed with the three practitioners, I find Aaron Glass' use of "encounter" a useful intervention in considering the authority of this video essay as a tool for representation. In presenting the screening of Mujeres S. As director, producer, and salvage ethnographer, Curtis becomes a character who is just as much a part of the film as the Kwakwaka'wakw actors are, even though he doesn't appear in it.
Moreover, miando of as an encoun- ter, the balance of power shifts, implying that the film is a co-production between the Kwakwaka'wakw and Curtis. As historians of the film have pointed out, its production gave the Kwakwaka'wakw people a pretext to craft major ceremonial pieces, masks and to per- form ceremonies that the younger generation had not had a chance to participate in because of the Potlatch Ban and discrimination.
As I will explore later, however, like Head Hunters, the discussion in the video is partly guided by mujeres, by what I would like to hear about — that is to say, none of the participants called me up to request that I just show up at their doorstep and document their practice. In that sense 14 Glass, Aaron. To download VLC, click here: www. AVI file has an accompanying. The questions I attempt to answer miando about the nature of the insights I've gained from the participants and how they have shaped my understanding of historical practice.
I've already revealed a bit of my learning process in the sections about the three participants in chapter 1, for example, when I wrote about learning the nature of Haida formlines and the way they reflect fundamental flows in the world around us that transcend the categories of "art" and "modernity.
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